The Dumbbell Nebula (also known as Apple Core Nebula, Messier 27, M 27, or NGC 6853) is a planetary nebula in the constellation Vulpecula, at a distance of about 1,360 light-years. At its brightness of visual magnitude 7.5 and its diameter of about 8 arcminutes, it is easily visible in binoculars, and a popular observing target in amateur telescopes.
The Dumbbell Nebula appears to be shaped like an prolate spheroid and is viewed from our perspective along the plane of its equator. In 1992, Moreno-Corral et al. computed that its rate of expansion in the plane of the sky was no more than 2.3" per century. From this, an upper limit to the age of 14,600 yr may be determined.
Data captured 24 September, 2017.
23x 10 minute exposures at ISO400.
Skywatcher Quattro 200 CF
Canon 40d (IR Filter removed)
This image was processed in Pixinsight & Lightroom.
Calibration and Stacking in Pixinsight.
Dynamic Crop - To remove black edges & integration artifacts.
Dynamic Background Extraction - To remove gradients.
Canon Banding Reduction script - To remove horizontal lines.
Photometric Colour Calibration - To colour calibrate the image.
Deconvolution - To bring out some fine detail.
Multiscale Linear Transform - Noise reduction.
Histrogram Transformation - To stretch the image and bring out the data.
Curves Transformation - To increase contrast.
Local Histogram Equialisation - To sharpen and increase detail, using Star Mask.
Multiscale Linear Transform - To sharpen and increase detail, using Star Mask.
Local Histogram Equialisation - Increase detail, using Star Mask.
Curves Transformation - To increase saturation, using Star Mask.
Curves Transformation - To improve contrast, using Star Mask.
Curves Transformation - To improve contrast, using Starless Mask.
Export as JPEG and import into Lightroom.
Clip Blacks (-25)
Export final JPEG for upload.